[CALL] Theory and practice of network-based language teaching

Network-Based Language Teaching: Concepts and Practice 【心得】
兩位作者回顧了網路語言教學(Network-Based Language Teaching, NBLT)的歷史,說明CALL的教學觀基本上是跟隨語言教學和語言學研究的發展而更革的。傳統上CALL偏重自學、編序應用(programmed application)、操練(drills)、模擬、教學遊戲、測驗等等。但網路作為一種新式CALL的工具,則更強調人際溝通和社會互動。


Who are some key scholars?Leonard Bloomfield, Charles Fries, Robert LadoNoam Chomsky, Stephen KrashenDell Hymes, M.A.K. Halliday
How is language viewed?As autonomous structural system.As a mentally constructed system.As a social and cognitive phenomenon.
How is language understood to develop?Through transmission from competent users. Internalization of structures and habits through repetition and corrective feedback.Through the operation of innate cognitive heuristics on language input.Through social interaction and assimilation of others speech.
What should be fostered in students?Mastery of a prescriptive norm, imitation of modeled discourse, with minimal errors.Ongoing development of their interlanguage. Ability to realize their individual communicative purposes.Attention to form (including genre, register, and style variation) in contexts of real language use.
How is instruction oriented?Toward well-formed language products (spoken or written). Focus on mastery of discrete skills.Toward cognitive processes involved in the learning and use of language. Focus on development of strategies for communication and learning.Toward negotiation of meaning through collaborative interaction with others. Creating a discourse community with authentic communicative tasks.
What is the primary unit of analysis?Isolated sentences.Sentences as well as connected discourse.Stretches of connected discourse.
How are language texts (spoken or written) primarily treated?As displays of vocabulary and grammar structures to be emulated.Either as input for unconscious processing or as objects of problem-solving and hypothesis testing.As communicative acts (doing things with words).
Where is meaning located?In utterances and texts (to be extracted by listener or reader).In the mind of the learner (through activation of existing knowledge).In the interaction between interlocutors, writers and readers; constrained by interpretive rules of the relevant discourse community.

而在實際運用層面,結構派認為CALL主要的功能是可以提供無限的操練、家教般的教學、和正確的回饋。而認知派認為,CALL應該提供語言輸入、分析∕推論的任務,以輔助語言學習。社會認知派則認為,CALL主要功能是提供社會互動,幫助學習者參與言談社群(discourse community)、或者創造新的社群。 因此,結構派的傾向(orientation)是「成品」,而認知派的傾向是「認知過程」,社會認知派的傾向是「認知過程」和「社會交際」。

ps. 雖然這本書主要內容是網路教學,不過本文的範圍是CALL而非NBLT。